In approximately September 1958, 2,4,5-T was adopted for use by the government under Specification O-H-210 and Federal Stock Number (FSN) 6840-577-4201 for a 55-gallon drum, and then later under FSN 6840-616-9159 for a five-gallon can.
Relatively small quantities (2%) were used for defoliation of military base perimeters; 9% of the total was used to destroy unfriendly crops as a means of reducing enemy food supplies. If a veteran has pictures from their service in Thailand that show them on or near the perimeter, those can be submitted to VA as evidence that they spent time around the perimeter of the base. Please sign up for the occasional Agent Orange Record / War Legacies Project email newsletter. He was a chief gunner on UH-1P helicopters that provided gun cover for RANCH HAND aircraft.
Similar to the Air Force unit histories in Thailand, the 1979 hearing noted that herbicides were used around bases in order to maintain base security. Both commercial and individual customers purchased this product as a weed killer. In humans the half-life is between, Nations around the world have signed on to the. The project later proved to have negative effects on human health. She is a Florida native and is also a full time student working on a Bachelors Degree in Legal Studies. As Mr. Raymond Gross, a PACAF agronomist, conducted the training, the herbicide manual was most likely employed throughout Southeast Asia. Deland, FL: 1607 South State Road 15A Suite 12 Deland, FL 32720, Satellite Offices VAs regulation38 C.F.R. Figure 1 illustrates many of the nearly 500 spray targets that we digitized from military records. Agent Orange was made up of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and its contaminant TCDD, which is a highly toxic byproduct of producing Agent Orange. We used a conservative estimate of three parts per million of dioxin contamination and did not include poorly documented herbicides sprayed by Vietnamese, US Army, and US Navy trucks, boats, hand sprayers, and helicopters. Contact our office for a free consultation at 800-544-9144. We later developed a modernized geographic information system, also under an NAS contract. Mr. George Collins was assigned to the Aero Space Ground Equipment (AGE) unit in U-Tapao for seven months beginning in 1969 and ending in 1970. Because significant sections of these bases were within the drift zones of herbicides, the exposure presumption should apply. Both Vietnam and Thailand were engagement zones for deployed military personnel, and both countries had similar Rules of Engagement (Rules).
A key fact leading to presumptive herbicide agent exposure for Vietnam veterans was that herbicide records were incomplete, making it impossible to determine who was actually exposed. TCDD is thought to be responsible for most of the medical problems associated with exposure and has been shown to cause a variety of illnesses in laboratory animals, namely reproductive defects. VA should establish the same presumption of exposure for Thailand veterans that they afforded Vietnam veterans. Contacting us does not create an attorney-client relationship. By 2009, the USDA and the CDC show that the rates of Celiac incidences increased to 77,000 compared to an increase of glyphosate to almost 16,000 x 1,000 lbs. Note. From 1965 to 1968, 5,727 Communist insurgents in Thailand were either killed, arrested, or surrendered. Chemical Corps described these products as expandable supply items to be available to all users, meaning they were meant for use by facility engineers as an herbicide for grounds keeping (i.e., brush and weed control).. This notion is further strengthened by the fact that the civil engineers developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) specifically for the disposal of herbicides due to fear that indiscriminate use of herbicide could be a source of pollution. These admissions correlate with sworn statements provided by several Airmen. When addressing the adequacy of facility security, official documents state that herbicides were applied to the fenced in area around the ammo storage, facility, around all perimeter guard towers, and the areas around runway overrun lights. The 1973 CHECO report also states that herbicides were used on areas within the perimeter. (Emphasis added.) The directive empowered the Commander U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (COMUSMAV), and the U.S. A comprehensive statement should lay out, in detail, what the veteran was doing that put them on or near the perimeter, at what base they were stationed, what their MOS was, and how close they were to the perimeter. Chicago, IL: 55 E. Monroe Street, Suite 3800, Chicago, IL, 60603 VAs policy on herbicide exposure around Thailand base perimeters did not even exist when FL 09-20 was issued in 2009. This webinar has already aired. Other herbicides used in Vietnam included: Agent Blue, Agent Green, Agent Pink, Agent Purple, Agent White, Bromacil, Dalapon, Dinoxol, Diquat, Diuron, Monuron, Tandex, and Trinoxol. Cassandra Crosby is a Veterans Claims Advocate for Hill & Ponton. Pre-war conditions of Vietnams forests, which included an ecologically balanced mixture of large numbers of species of flora and fauna, took hundreds of years to reach. Dioxin has been found to be an endocrine disruptor that can cause chloracne, certain cancers, and reproductive and developmental effects (at least in animals). The Air Force leadership argued that adherence to the SOP should eliminate any misuse of herbicide application on Takhli. This reporting directly corresponds to other Air Force archives documents from 1973 showing that the Civil Engineers had developed a standard operating procedure for the use of herbicide on Takhli to avoid misuse. Copyright 2022 Hill & Ponton, P.A.. All Rights Reserved. Moreover, VAs current position that herbicides were only used along the perimeters is contradicted by documented evidence and sworn statements. Data on relationships between herbicide exposures and diseases for which veterans can receive medical attention and benefits are largely derived from environmental and toxicological studies not associated with Vietnam; rather, this information is based on systematic studies conducted by the Institute of Medicine biennially since 1994 (. A Monsanto scientist developed the active ingredient glyphosate in 1970. On Korat, for example, the physical training area and Non-Commissioned Officer building were located within the drift zone, and living quarters were only meters away from the perimeter. In 1970, the US Congress commissioned a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study with Department of Defense (DOD) cooperation. Although these missions were classified, they demonstrate the robust relationship between U.S. military in Thailand and Operation RANCH HAND. In response to a 1971-72 Congressional record, an Air Force consultant wrote, [t]he Air Force does not and has not used any defoliants that are not in general use in this country. Later, in the 1980s, the government did indeed ban the use of all 2,4,5-T based herbicides for the same reasons it previously stopped the use of Agent Orange (a 2,4,5-T based herbicide) in Vietnamcontamination with 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD.. Notably, Mr. Pippengers statement and the time period in which he served at Udorn coincide with official records of the delivery of 28,000 gallons of Agents Orange and Blue to Udorn in 1969 and the use of some of those herbicides by C-123 aircraft. Herbicides were also used to kill crops to diminish the enemys food supply. Richmond, VA: 7400 Beaufont Springs Drive, Suite 300, Richmond, VA, 23225 The 1986 Scientific Feasibility of Agent Orange Ground Troop Study noted that the group could not gain a clear indication from exposed verses non-exposed veterans because the records were incomplete. Although the SOP is not available or remains classified, the development and enforcement of the SOP highlights the prevalence of herbicide use and the concern of misuse on Thailand bases. In 1990, approximately 27,000 people were known to have had a celiac incidence. Rightly enough, this chemical was banned. The legal team at Chisholm Chisholm & Kilpatrick LTD has done extensive research on the use of herbicides in Thailand during the Vietnam War.
Do You Qualify for Long Term Disability Benefits? Spraying operations were directed at specific targets, 487 of which are shown; we digitized some of the images from original hand-drawn maps (colored areas at upper left) in files rediscovered in the National Archives. Data were derived from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (https://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/agentorange/conditions/index.asp). Cassandra Crosby, Claims Advocate Updated: July 16, 2020. yet assertive representation for our clients.
In turn, this supports veterans statements regarding the use of herbicide to clear bases in Thailand during this period. To be deemed safe these directions are to be followed: I dont know about any of the rest of you, but I have never followed any of those directions. He reported that he took time to ride with a mobile unit Security Alert Team around NKP bases perimeters, [and] while going along the east perimeter a crew from civil engineering with a truck with a tank sprayed what Mr. Hogstad believed to be Agent Orange. This survey is optional, and you may opt out of receiving future survey requests by clicking the "opt-out" link. 3.307 (a)(6)(i) defines an herbicide agent as a chemical in an herbicide used in support of the United States and allied military operations in the Republic of Vietnam . The Memorandum for the Record, which VA often cites in these cases, is outdated, contains erroneous and misleading statements, and was never intended for perimeter policy cases. The threats toward Air Force bases were legitimate and a serious concern for military units stationed in Thailand. Studies have found that by the late 1990s TCDD levels in the blood of those tested had dropped from a high of nearly 20 parts per trillion to between 2 and 5 ppt. The prevalence of herbicide use in Thailand is further demonstrated by the embassys approval of the use of herbicides on several occasions. From 1966 to mid-1968, insurgents conducted 331 assassinations and 1,087 armed encounters. A substance containing any of these five compounds is an herbicide agent as a matter of law, regardless of its purpose or name brand. From February 2 to 5, 1969, RANCH HAND flew Laos missions from Udorn. The training is an indicator that Air Force leadership took a cohesive approach regarding the application of herbicides on Thailand bases. With these mandates, VA has instituted a systematic process that restricts the law and ensures that otherwise qualifying veterans and their families are denied benefits. Although VA recognizes there was significant use of herbicides at numerous Thailand military bases, it continues to deny Thailand veterans the presumption of exposure afforded to Vietnam veterans. The similar exposure situations between Vietnam and Thailand merit equal protection, to include the presumption of exposure, for all Vietnam-era veterans who served in Thailand. Both authors contributed equally to this editorial. Dioxin is not absorbed by most plants nor is it water soluble. Forty-two missions intended to spray 30000 gallons of herbicide are known to have ended with emergency dumps in which the herbicide was jettisoned in about 30 seconds, as compared with the usual four to five minutes. Rashes. The herbicides were also used in the United States, but at application rates at least an order of magnitude lower and with somewhat differing formulations. . Dr. Youngs documents indicate that herbicides, including Agent Orange and its counterparts, were used for routine vegetation control programs. Dioxin originated as an unintended byproduct in the deliberately accelerated manufacture of 2,4,5-T for use in the U.S. war efforts in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV) Directive 525-1 (1966) highlighted the procedure for requesting aerial spray, power spray, and hand spray in Vietnam. The statute that defines herbicide agent focuses solely on the chemical agents contained in the herbicides used in Vietnam. A recent study by Samsel & Seneff, 2013, argued that glyphosate may be a key contributor to obesity as well as other health problems like Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, infertility, depression, and cancer. VA has constructed an arbitrary distinction between tactical and commercial herbicides. Data on relationships between herbicide exposures and diseases for which veterans can receive medical attention and benefits are largely derived from environmental and toxicological studies not associated with Vietnam; rather, this information is based on systematic studies conducted by the Institute of Medicine biennially since 1994 (Box 1).4 Many studies of veterans are compromised by severe misclassification: some have defined veterans mere presence in Vietnam as exposure, whereas others have focused on service in the four military combat tactical zones despite the fact that spraying varied dramatically within each zone (e.g., one zone contained unsprayed Saigon and the heavily sprayed Iron Triangle). Likewise, if a veteran was exposed, and then diagnosed with certain diseases, the government would concede that the disease was related to the exposure. We demonstrated that a sizeable number of troops served in sprayed areas and were at elevated risk of selected health outcomes.
741 and S.B. Agent Pink consisted only of 2,4,5-T as a 60:40 mixture of its n-butyl and isobutyl esters.
RoundUp Ready soybeans and canola were introduced in the 1990s, with crops of corn and sugarbeets following. A comprehensive overview of the companys dirty deeds from Agent Orange / dioxin to Greenwashing. The important element of a successful claim for disability compensation based on exposure to herbicides used outside of Vietnam is demonstrating that the agent contained in the herbicide in one of those listed above. By Robert Allen. Mr. Johnson was diagnosed with non-Hodgkins lymphoma. The use of herbicides on NKP was noted in the 1973 CHECO report and in a soldiers sworn statement. Second, we discovered archival data on approximately 200 missions in which more than two million liters of Agent Purple had been sprayed prior to 1965. VA keeps moving the goalposts regarding how and when it will concede exposure to Agent Orange for veterans who, Agent Orange exposure has been linked to a variety of cancers, but veterans who are suffering from, or family members of veterans who died as a result of, renal cancer, In a recent blog I discussed the impact of Agent Orange and its relationship to cancerous (such as prostate cancer from agent orange) versus non-cancerous diseases specifically skin conditions.. Copyright 2022 Chisholm Chisholm & Kilpatrick LTD. All Rights Reserved. found in the phenoxy chemical 2,4,5-T, one of two components of Agent Orange. The directive highlights U.S. assistance to local government in requesting, supplying, and planning defoliation operations. When Congress enacted this law, it stated, the term herbicide agent means a chemical in an herbicide used in support of the United States and allied military operations in the Republic of Vietnam during the period beginning on January 9, 1962, and ending on May 7, 1975. 38 U.S.C. His statement aligns with the CHECO report, which notes that heavy use of herbicides kept the growth under control in the fenced areas. Moreover, Mr. Hogstads statement correlates with a historical record showing a request dated October 11, 1967, sought six C-123 herbicide aircraft and 60 personnel to operate from [NKP] for a 15 day period.. It stands to reason that this remaining herbicide was used at other bases since 21,000 gallons was far more than necessary for a single base.
Have you been affected by the recall of certain Philips Respironics ventilators, CPAP, and BiPAP machines?
QuickPro is a dry formula and Rodeo/Aquamaster kills weeds at water lines such as next to lakes, rivers, etc. In 1970, the US Congress commissioned a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study with Department of Defense (DOD) cooperation. Why Hire CCK for Your VA Disability Appeal? By June 1973, the unit was waiting for more herbicides.
Throughout the Vietnam War, RANCH HAND aircraft utilized bases in Thailand. Although he worked on the detail for 10 days, he stated that the detail continued for the rest of his time there.
In addition to being inapplicable, the Memorandum for the Record is outdated. Dioxin can attach to fine soil particles or sediment, which are then carried by water downstream and settle in the bottoms of ponds and lakes where it can accumulate in the food chain. Army Chemical Corps personnel are a source of many health reports, but they handled very small amounts of herbicides and large quantities of other chemicals. Learn more about us, Veterans Disability Claim The report recognizes the heightened risk of attacks directed against air bases because they presented the enemy with a concentration of lucrative targets. Additionally, the report states: Thailand is going through the same type of growing pains experienced in the Republic of Vietnam (RVN), but the knowledge and experience gained in the development of air base defense in RVN permit a more rapid evolution in Thailand. Thus, similar tactics and procedures in base defense were used in both Thailand and Vietnam because the bases were facing the same threat with similar resources. In the 1968 Contemporary Historical Examination of Current Operation (CHECO) Project Southeast Asia Report: Attack on Udorn, the Air Force recognized that Thailand was a prime target of Communist expansion, and the interest of the Communists was intensified by the USAF presence. The report also noted that there were an estimated 15,500 Communist insurgents and sympathizers in Thailand. She started at Hill & Ponton in the Spring of 2016. VAs requirement that Thailand veterans prove their duty position entailed working on the perimeter is unreasonable.
At least five herbicide-loaded aircraft crashed. Steven D. Stellman is with the Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University. . Public health debate originally focused on ecocide from the massive defoliation. These and other studies are often based on unreliable self-reports of handling of herbicides. VAs distinction between tactical and commercial herbicides is therefore misguided, arbitrary, and contrary to law. Annual training was conducted on Takhli from March 17 to 21, 1969, and July 13 to 16, 1970, with representatives from all Thailand bases. I died in Vietnam, but I didnt even know it, said a young Vietnam vet on the Today Show one morning in 1978, shocking viewers across the country. Although most of the Air Force bases in Thailand were seen as staging hubs for operations within Vietnam, military personnel located throughout Thailand were also subjected to hostile attacks from Communists. He also saw an aircraft spray the kennel area, and he remembers vegetation in that area dying shortly thereafter. Please call for an appointment before visiting: Mail Processing Center: P.O. Regarding base defense, the survey stated: A continuing vegetation control program is required for cleared areas under and between perimeter security fences. The distinction between a tactical herbicide and a commercial herbicide has no legal or factual significance. Once VA lifted the stay, these claims still required adjudication. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), some of the many (too many to list here)side effects of glyphosatefound are: Monsanto has not just developed the herbicide for removing unwanted vegetation, it has used glyphosate to engineer crops that are resistant to herbicides, allowing farmers to spray fields with RoundUp and not kill the food crops being grown for human consumption. Army Chemical Corps personnel are a source of many health reports, but they handled very small amounts of herbicides and large quantities of other chemicals. In Command Sergeant Major (Ret.) The herbicides stored on Johnston Island were burned at sea in approximately 1977. The DOD created the HERBS file, an electronic record of the flight path coordinates of more than 9000 missions flown by C-123 aircraft used in the Air Forces Operation Ranch Hand, the code name given to Air Force military herbicide operations carried out in the Republic of Vietnam between 1962 and 1971. Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Mr. Collins stated there were several defoliated areas within U-Tapao including around the Aero Space Ground Equipment (AGE) facility, the baseball fields, and the viewing area for the Bob Hope Christmas Show. After the attack on U-Tapao, the 635th Security Police Squadron used herbicides to clear a 100-foot zone on both sides of the perimeter fencing. National Archives records also reveal that herbicides were delivered to Takhli on April 7, 1973. Finally, we invite you to contact us and we welcome your calls, letters and electronic mail. . var plc440675 = window.plc440675 || 0; The DOD added spray records in 1985, primarily records of Army helicopter spraying of basecamp perimeters. 38 C.F.R. 196, Congress considered perimeter spraying.
First, we were able to correct about 10% of the records that had previously been discarded by NAS because they were clearly erroneous; we corrected the records through examination of primary source materials. This suggests that the defoliant improvement projects occurred after the herbicide testing (1964-1965). Few systematic data exist on population exposures through residual contamination of soils or consumption of herbicidal chemicals taken up in the food chain, although hot spots are known.3. Air Force documents confirm that herbicide deliveries not associated with RANCH HAND were transported to and from Thailand. Here iswhy: On August 11, 2018, Monsanto was ordered to pay a record $289 million to Mr. Dewayne Johnson, a groundskeeper in California, among 5000 other claimants, due to failing to warn consumers that glyphosate in its weed-killing products was a known carcinogen. 3.307(a)(6)(i). This coincides with documentation demonstrating that Major George Norwood addressed the need for strong vegetation control and that the Base Civil Engineers had been requested specifically for vegetation control on Udorn in 1971. The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam, The Effects of Herbicides in South Vietnam: Part A, Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nama legacy of Agent Orange, Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam, Health and reproductive outcomes among American Legionnaires in relation to combat and herbicide exposure in Vietnam, A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam, Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study, Compendium for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, https://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/agentorange/conditions/index.asp, http://www.workerveteranhealth.org/milherbs/new/, Soft tissue sarcomas (other than osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Kaposis sarcoma, and mesothelioma). These attacks resulted in both U.S. and enemy causalities. Cleveland, OH: 600 Superior Ave. East, Fifth Third Building, Suite 1300, Cleveland, OH, 44114 This requirement is arbitrary and unwarranted in light of the widespread use of herbicides in Thailand. The term is used only in the Memorandum for the Record and in individual cases wherein VA uses the distinction to deny benefits. Technical Sergeant William L. Easterly stated that RANCH HAND crew would use Agent Orange around their personnel area because they were not aware of the herbicides harmful effects.