NYPL/Wikimedia Commons (public domain). One of the best-known of these photographs features a French grenadier struck by a bullet during an attack, and usually bears the caption Verdun 1916 or Death of a poilu. This image is actually a photogram from a fictional film by Lon Poirier, Verdun: Visions dHistoire, made in 1928 for the 10th anniversary of the Armistice. In France, LIllustration published its first photographs in 1891, but it was with the creation of LExcelsior in 1910 that magazine news photography took off in France, as it did in several other countries at this time. Initially, the Germans intended the gun to shell English ports, but when this scenario became unfeasible, they decided to use it to terrorize the people of Paris. Of course, submarines and tanks werent the only battlefield machines of WWI. David Souter Henry/Wikimedia Commons (public domain). This innovation mainly benefitted the Allies, allowing them to clearly gain the upper hand in the air war. Other techniques to prevent infection included wrapping wounds in carbolic lotion soaked gauze, and bipping: the treatment of wounds with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste.

The Spanish influenza tore through Europe in 1918, before the war was over. Painvins success enabled the French to carry out an effective counter-offensive. The development and use of gas as a combat weapon was another innovation that characterized the Great War, a key period for the escalation of the techniques leading to modern chemical warfare. However, the discovery of the Reading Bacillus by Leonard Joyce saw innovation in the treatment of infection. To avoid this possibility, which would have seriously compromised a German victory, German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann sought a diversionary strategy to keep the American army busy on other fronts, i.e., in Mexico or in Japan. Killing more people than any other weapons class, artillery became so advanced during WWI that some long-range weapons had to take the curvature of the Earth into consideration in order to remain accurate.

Later on, this would turn out to be desirable when scientists were looking for a chemical that could kill fast growing, cancerous white blood cells.

The victims suffered horribly and usually died after about five weeks. The same year, the editor of Le Petit Parisien inaugurated Le Miroir, a weekly photo tabloid that had a circulation of 400,000 at the beginning of the war. Trench fever was spread through body lice. TNT offered greater stability than other explosives of the period, such as picric acid.

This dreaded weapon sent out a long tongue of ignited gas or flammable liquid (petrol or nitrogen). Based on a system of caterpillar locomotion that allowed it to move on any kind of terrain, the first tanks were equipped with machine guns and heavy armoured panels. In a logical outgrowth of the interest in photography, in 1898, the first pictorial newspapers appeared in France with the weekly La Vie illustre and the bi-monthly Lectures pour tous, and in England in 1904, with The Daily Mirror. Most of the research was carried out at the University of Toronto and McGill University, with a flurry of proposals of a military nature being submitted to the research fellows,who contributed much to innovation in combat. For instance, chemotherapy is used widely today, and the infection of wounds is relatively uncommon. The plans and documents related to it were also destroyed, which explains the mystery and fascination surrounding this weapon. The use of various types of individual weapons such as submachine guns, the dreaded machine guns, grenades and grenade launchers became the standard. The science of destruction: How WWI drove development in science and technology. It also functioned to support patriotic discourse and encourage the national war effort. Australia was linked to New Zealand in 1876. Its purpose was to destroy French fortifications in the case of war. The members of the Council quickly concluded that scientific research in Canada was underdeveloped, and the first measures they took aimed to correct this situation, including the granting of scholarships. Aircraft equipped with transmitters could send messages, whereas ground troops used other methods to communicate with pilots, such as signal lights and flares. The French used tear gas in the war from the outset, but Germany was the first belligerent country to adopt the systematic use of disabling, lethal gas for the purpose of forcing enemy soldiers to leave the trenches they occupied, in spite of the international Hague Convention that outlawed its use. In the middle of the 19th century, the French government, aware of the potential of war photography, created a special service within the army. The soldiers in charge of telecommunication networks were assigned to engineers brigades, such as the British Royal Engineers. Infection could be fatal, and the war gave rise to a number of methods to prevent the spread of infection.

The use of automatic weapons in WWI saw soldiers discharging up to 600 rounds in 60 seconds (compared with four rounds a minute at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815), resulting in far greater devastation and loss of life. Though we now know even O-negative blood might not be risk free for every patient, its easy to see how it could be very useful in WWI conditions. On June 2, 1918, he succeeded in cracking the German cipher used to communicate preparations for an attack on Compigne, north of Paris, scheduled for June 9. During the First World War, the scientific and technological progress that brought about innovations in the industrialization of mass production was entirely directed towards the upgrading of weaponry and military technology in general. Starting in 1914, this regiment, assisted by a team of scientists and engineers who included Louis de Broglie, perfected and adapted the wireless telegraph system for military use and achieved a high level of innovation in radiotelegraphy, developing increasingly sophisticated devices. They proved more effective at the Battle of Cambrai in 1917. The first air battle in history took place in October 1914, when a German plane was shot down by two French aviators. At the end of 1900, the summary of his research, presented to the German Physical Society in Berlin, marked the birth of quantum theory, although Planck himself would not contribute significantly to this specific subject after this time. O-negative blood is still used today in emergencies if a patients exact blood type is unavailable, as it was once thought of as the universal donor. However, they could only be handled by specially-trained personnel and their reliability was unsure, as they could be disoriented by the blasts of shells, artillery barrages, and firing in general. This was done by dirigibles, but these were soon overtaken by airplanes, which, although still in the preliminary stage, were faster, more manoeuvrable, and less easily spotted than the Zeppelins. Considering these developments, the prominent role of photography in chronicling the Great War was inevitable.

Medical professionals were enlisted en masse, as old and new medical problems presented themselves on a large scale. The German U-boat U-38, after being captured by the US navy. Newfoundland-born physicist Robert William Boyle contributed to the development of the first ultrasound detection system used by British ships in 1918, a prototype of sonar. Allied aircraft succeeded in disrupting the German ground offensive at the Second Battle of the Marne, turning the tide of the war. While it is hard to ignore the massive amount of death and destruction brought by war, the challenges and pressures of wartime have historically driven necessarily fast developments in science, technology, medicine and engineering many of which have gone on to have wider reaching applications in peacetime as well. Also, with the development of longer-range artillery, enemy fleets could fight battles leaving a greater distance between them. World War I started with a telegram, perhaps marking this time as one in which the world was about to be revolutionised by science and technology. The great majority of the official photographs were of the daily routine of soldiers in the trenches between attacks. Mustard gas led to the discovery of mustine, or chloromenthine, the first chemotherapy drug. Max Planck, already a renowned scientific pioneer at the beginning of the 20th century, carried out important work in thermodynamics, electromagnetism, and statistical physics. Mustard gas alone stood out as a symbol of the chemical warfare that the belligerents engaged in, due to its extremely harmful effects when exposure was long enough. Trench warfare posed the problem of a stalemate, and tanks allowed for an army to cross enemy defences and rough terrain. Based on a design from 1884, they sustained a high fire rate and were good for stopping attacking soldiers as they advanced. The Mark I was relatively unreliable and provided a hot inside environment filled with fumes it wasnt uncommon for the Mark I to kill its occupants should there be a spark. Using this very heavy, cumbersome weaponry required well-oiled logistical support and pre-planned infrastructures: railway tracks and cleared paved roads to move them and to transport the mortar shells. Many other pieces of field artillery were used, including the French de Bange cannon. It remains a classic example of a propaganda film of that era. It weighed only 6.5 tons, was mounted by an 8mm Hotchkiss machine gun or a 37mm cannon. It captured images of the shelling of German positions, British troops waiting for the signal to attack, medical treatment of wounded British and German soldiers, British and German dead, and German equipment and positions. In tandem with action by with fighter planes, it was a highly effective attack machine. While rifles were standard issue to all soldiers, machine guns were put into first major use for the first time during the war. Also known as five day fever, the disease was characterised by a fever, headaches, skin rashes and leg pains, and became chronic in about 5% of cases. In contrast to First World War weapons that had been tested in the previous wars mentioned above, flame-throwers were a new development of total war. In Great Britain, the Board of Inventions and Research was established for this purpose; in Canada, an Order in Council in June 1916 created the Honorary Advisory Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, the basis for the National Research Council (1925). Submarines also saw some of their earliest uses in battle during WWI. Trenches were fairly enclosed and were difficult to evacuate quickly, making them susceptible to chemical attack. Once at the base hospital, a wounded or sick soldier could receive treatment and surgery. It was a custom in the Krupp factories to name new artillery models after members of the manufacturers family, and this one was reportedly called Bertha after the daughter of Friedrich Alfred Krupp. In 1914, the first image for a news report was transmitted by belinograph (an early wirephoto process): it was a photograph of the First World War. Aside from destruction, WWI enabled the discovery of many chemical processes that help sustain society today. Aerial bombing intensified with the development of twin-engine and four-engine airplanes capable of carrying heavier payloads. It was the worlds first media chronicle of an international conflict. Disfigurements and amputations in large numbers presented a serious challenge for medics and nurses, as did trench foot and trench mouth, venereal disease, and the Spanish influenza. There was an urgent need to develop means to prevent essential information and tactical plans from leaking out. The use of aircrafts on a large scale for the first time in WWI has left its mark on the following century of air combat. Mustard gas, for example, was found to decrease the white blood cell count in those it was used on. Originally called Sonar by the Americans and ASDIC by the British, the primary method for detecting underwater ships during WWI echolocation used the reflection of sound waves to determine the position of submarines. In trench warfare, heavier, more powerful weapons were needed to destroy enemy lines and to kill or wound the maximum number of enemy combatants on the ground before sending in foot soldiers. Furthermore, to be able to fire in all directions like the battleship gun turrets, they had to be manned by a large crew: 18 men for the German A7V, for example. Izoulet, Matthieu, and Bouville, Laurent, Rasmussen, Anne, quoi sert la science?,. In 1916, Einstein elaborated his general theory of relativity in which he described the behaviour of the gravitational field (the space-time metric) according to the energy and material content. While planes were originally used to monitor enemy movements, their utility was quickly realised by both sides, and a need for a defensive system in the air became evident. Chemical weapons used in World War I.Andy Brunning/Compound Interest (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Since submarines in WWI generally surfaced to shoot with guns mounted on top, they were visible to enemy battleships, meaning they could not safely surface. Chlorine, phosgene, yperite, mustard gas: an estimated 112,000 tons of these chemicals caused the deaths of almost 500,000 men. Vector-borne diseases were common during the Great War. Infections such as typhus, typhoid, tuberculosis, trench fever, and the Spanish influenza, which were largely due to the mass movement of soldiers and civilians, presented a significant problem for medical workers during WWI. This 1916 documentary (which included some staged scenes) was shot by two official British government cameramen, Geoffrey Malins and John McDowell. At the front, a network of cables had to be laid to allow the high command to communicate with front-line units.

Medically, WWI presented incredibly challenging circumstances for doctors, surgeons and nurses. Ultrasound was first commercialised in Australia after the CSIRO discovered that ultrasound echoes could be used to identify internal anomalies in the human body. It caused blisters and internal hemorrhaging, strongly damaged the respiratory tract and the eyes, and destroyed lung tissue. Yperite, also used by the Germans, made its appearance in 1917 at Ypres (hence its name). gun underwater ssu yugoslav suppressing self unit january imgur russian In naval construction, it meant that battleships and cruisers became bigger and faster, with more efficient armoured protection and better fire power.

Even burying them as deeply as possible did not always protect them from destruction. While Sonar was discovered in the late 19th century, WWI drove the use of more powerful equipment due to technological advances over the previous 20 years. Einstein was first a German national, then, after a period of statelessness, became a Swiss citizen in 1901, and eventually acquired dual Swiss-American citizenship in 1940. Want a reminder when our next issue is published? In France, in the spring of 1915, the ministries of war, foreign affairs, and education and fine arts created the photography section of the army (SPA), giving it the well-defined objectives of countering German propaganda in the neutral countries and creating a documentary source for army use, and above all, an archival fonds. With the rapid industrialisation of the late-19th and early-20th centuries, the war was on its way to being characterised by masses of production, transportation, injuries and illnesses, and, of course, death. Today, many of the photographs that appear in school textbooks and are part of our collective remembrance of the war are unauthentic, as they were not taken during the actual battles. Trench fever is unfortunately still prevalent in homeless populations around the world. In response, most soldiers received vaccinations against typhoid going into the war, and delousing stations were used to prevent typhus outbreaks on the Western Front. They were vital in relaying messages between the front and the rear, between different points on the front line, and between different army units during manoeuvres. Finally, despite its high cost, the worldwide telegraph network reached its objective, a remarkable accomplishment, as British Empire communications remained uninterrupted and inviolate during the First World War, while the British rapidly succeeded in intercepting and disabling Germanys international cable network. However, this war vehicle was only effectively developed in the First World War when the belligerents sought strategies to break the stalemate situation of trench warfare. Immelmanns name was given to an acrobatic manoeuvre he invented to escape fire and at the same time gain an advantageous position in the fight. The equipment was heavy, restricting movement and making it difficult to take pictures of combat scenes. Trench fever struck a staggering estimated 500,000 British soldiers alone, though every army involved in the war suffered the disease. In addition, the continuous artillery barrages deeply traumatized and demoralized the combatants. This institutional recognition of the importance of documentary photography was echoed in several other countries. The Germans were soon handicapped by the Allies capacity to detect their submarines. volution et algorithmes, Laviation militaire de 19141918,, Technologie pendant la Premire Guerre mondiale,, Audoin-Rouzeau, Stphane, Le temps des soldats couchs,, Gingras, Yves, Limpact de la Grande Guerre sur les sciences au Canada, in Robert Gagnon, Yves Gingras, proceedings of the colloquium. He developed his special theory of relativity and the famous equation, E=mc2 (energy=mass times the speed of light squared), established the matter-energy equivalence, in which all matter is energy. At the very beginning of the war, French code-breakers reconstituted the map of the German information networks by repeatedly cracking their codes and ciphers. While the first world war saw the use of weapons on a scale unseen in the years before 1914, as well as many inventions geared towards large-scale destruction, it also provoked a lot of scientific and medical progress. In this epistemological context, the discussions between the group led by Einstein and Erwin Schrdinger on one side and that of Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg on the other bridged the domains of physics and philosophy. Though in common use throughout WWI, it wasnt until 1976 that this technology was used medically. Germany used the ammonia it synthesised to maintain their munitions manufacturing once their supply lines were cut off, as well as fixing nitrogen to use as fertiliser, which is still hugely important in agriculture today. Artillery guns were often placed behind the lines due to their long-range capacity. Such raids could be devastating, such as when Germany launched long range bombing attacks on London with Zeppelins andGotha bombers. Stations were also set up to communicate with the colonies, with allies, with ships at sea, and with all the command posts. The flame-thrower was developed for the German army in 1910. The war at sea was an important priority for these two countries. The advances in naval construction and ship armament were strongly in evidence at the Battle of Jutland in 1916. American public opinion shifted, and President Wilson convinced Congress to vote for an official declaration of war against Germany on April 6, 1917. Approximately 75 percent of the physical injuries in the war were caused by shell explosions. Amputation was also used in many cases to avoid the infection of wounds on a soldiers extremities. Soon, bombs would be used in the air too.

WWI saw a range of different chemicals used as weapons, mainly in gas form. French troops were equipped with mobile wireless stations and acoustic location systems. From then onward, direct clashes between enemy aircraft became frequent, facilitated by a major technological innovation: the installation of machine guns that could fire bullets through the propellers. Early on in the war, certain pilots began to fly with firearms to shoot at enemy planes that were also carrying out reconnaissance flights. Not long afterward, Matthew Brady organized the photographic coverage of the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865. Great Britain, for its part, laid thousands of miles of underwater electric telegraph lines to create an unprecedented worldwide network linking almost all the parts of its empire. Below is a summary of the major technological innovations brought about by the Great War and which appear in the Apocalypse 10 Lives app.

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