Some of the downhill and Nordic skiing resorts located in the Northern Lower include Boyne Mountain, Boyne Highlands, Otsego Club & Resort (since 1939), Crystal Mountain Resort, Snow Snake Ski and Golf, Nub's Nob, Caberfae Peaks and Schuss Mountain. From 1720 to 1722, Pierre Franois Xavier de Charlevoix stopped at Michilimackinac and other points in Northern Michigan while seeking a Pacific Ocean passage. Marie, in the eastern Upper peninsula might be a viable alternative. Other nearby universities are in the Upper Peninsula (Northern Michigan University and Lake Superior State University), as well as Central Michigan University and Ferris State University in the more southern reaches of the state. ladybugs, crickets, dragonflies, mosquitoes, ants, house flies, and grasshoppers are common, as is the Western conifer seed bug, and several kinds of butterflies and moths (for example, monarch butterflies and tomato worm moths).  It was reopened in 1712, and operated on the north shore of the Straits until 1741, when it was relocated to the south shore. It was later bought out by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Starting in the 1870s, railroads were built connecting Northern Michigan to larger industrial areas to the south. See List of Michigan state forests. By the conclusion of the Beaver Wars in the 1660s and 1670s, the Potawatami had fled from northern Michigan and Anishinaabe/Algonquian(Ojibwa, Potawatomi and Odawa), calling themselves the Council of Three Fires, were the main tribal authority in the area. The second largest is the Zilwaukee Bridge. In the 1690s, commander Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac used Fort de Buade as a base of operations to explore and map the Great Lakes. Grayling and Gaylord and their environs are recognized for Nordic skiing. They serve as functioning warnings to mariners, but are also integral to the region's culture and history. In the historic period, the Anishinaabe/Algonquian-speaking peoples known as the Ojibwa, Potawatomi and Odawa, formed a loose confederation which they called the Council of Three Fires. They were part of the Hopewell Indian exchange system, which is named after a prehistoric tribe that existed in the Great Lakes region.  As US Congress passed trade and intercourse acts to regulate trade with the natives, the Office of Indian Trade established a US Trading Post "factory" at Mackinaw that was in place until the War of 1812.  In 1893, the Michigan Fish Commission commissioned the University of Nebraska Zoologist Henry Ward to study the sources of food for Traverse Bay area fish. This line later became the New York Central and was sold to the Detroit and Mackinac Railway in 1976.  Ernest Hemingway also documented turn-of-the-century life in Northern Michigan through his "Nick Adams" stories; Hemingway's own parents were resorters, wintering in Oak Park, Illinois but summering in the Windemere cottage on Walloon Lake starting in 1899.. They fortified the Jesuit mission at St. Ignace and La Durantaye settled in as overall commander of the French forts in the northwest: Fort Saint Louis des Illinois (Utica, Illinois); Fort Kaministigoya (Thunder Bay, Ontario); and Fort la Tourette (Lake Nipigon, Ontario).
The dunes are 3500 to 4000 years old, and rise to nearly 140 feet (43m) higher than the lake. The Ann Arbor became a part of Conrail and then was later divided up between the Michigan Northern Railway and the Michigan Interstate Railway Company. It is the largest state forest system in the nation at 3,900,000 acres (16,000km2). Alpena is a port city on Lake Huron.  The railroad was renamed the Great Lakes Central Railroad.
Charlevoix's Medusa Cement Plant was bought by Cemex in the 1990s. Lignery returned to the command of Michilimackinac in 1722 after an absence of about three years fighting the Fox in Illinois. The distance from northwest to the southeast corner is 456 miles (734km) "as the crow flies". Narrow-gauge moveable rails made it possible to harvest timber year round, in previously inaccessible places away from rivers.
The main line of this railway runs from Ann Arbor north to Petoskey, with branch lines to Yuma and Traverse City. After Marquette's death, the mission was taken over by Father Phillip Pierson, and then Father Nouvel.. Historian Bruce Catton's memoir Waiting for the Morning Train (1972) documents his personal experiences of early 20th-century life in a small Northern Michigan town as Michigan's logging era was ending. Competition for trade and pelts resulted in the brutal Beaver Wars, as the Iroquois pushed west into the Great Lakes territory, displacing the tribes who had settled there before. Logging is still important but at a mere fraction of its heyday (18601910) output. New mechanical tools such as steam-powered (versus water-powered) sawmills and circular saws expanded the ability to process high volumes of lumber quickly. The museum includes a small publicly-owned planetarium. In any event, its non-fatal bite may make an adult sick, but it should be medically treated without delay. A major draw to Northern Michigan is tourism. Historically, Fur trade, lumbering and commercial fishing were among the most important industries. It opened in 1929 and was served by rail service. This population varied with the seasons, as the tradition was to migrate inland to different camps (sometimes as far as to Illinois) depending upon the season. Highways and Michigan state trunklines. , The Au Sable State Forest is a state forest in the north-central Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Crystal Mountain in Benzie County opened in 1956. The opening day of deer season (November 15) is a major day for some residents. As late as 1829 the Mtis were dominant in the economy of Wisconsin and influential in Northern Michigan in part because they were able to work as intermediaries between natives and white fur traders. Ferns, milkweed, Queen Anne's lace, and chicory grow in the open fields and along roadsides. , The commercial fishing industry also flourished in the 1880s. [A] The most populated city in Northern Michigan is Traverse City, with over 14 thousand inhabitants. The Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad reached Traverse City in December 1872 (via Walton Junction and Traverse City Rail Road Company) and reached Petoskey (known up to that point as "Bear River") in 1873. By 1880 the Great Lakes region would dominate logging, with Michigan producing more lumber than any other state. Less well known birds that are unique in Michigan to the Northern Lower Peninsula are spruce grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, red-throated loon, Swainson's hawk, and the boreal owl.  By 1886, there was a drastic reduction in the amount of fishing produced, due to overfishing. In the spring of 1684, La Durantaye led a relief expedition from Saint Ignace to Fort Saint Louis des Illinois, which had been besieged by the Seneca (part of the Iroquois Confederacy) as part of the Beaver Wars; they sought to gain more hunting grounds in order to control the lucrative fur trade.  When Michigan became a state in 1837, one of its first acts was to name Douglass Houghton as the lead of the Michigan Geological Survey, an effort to understand the geological and mineralogical, zoological, botanical, and topographical aspects of the lesser known parts of Michigan. Running down the center of the Northern Lower Peninsula was the Michigan Central Railroad, which connected Mackinaw City with Bay City, Detroit, Lansing, and beyond. Marram grass grows on beaches.  The Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad completed its terminal at Ludington in 1874. Other Native American reservations exist at Mount Pleasant and on the Leelanau Peninsula. The museum defines its role broadly to preserve, protect and present history and culture closely connected with the heritage of Northern Michigan and the Great Lakes. Nub's Nob opened in 1958 near Harbor Springs. Signs in the Lower Peninsula that mark that line are at Mission Point Light (just north of Traverse City); Suttons Bay; Cairn Highway in Kewadin; Alba, Michigan, on U.S. 131 Highway (approximately two miles north of County Road 42, with signs on both sides of the highway); Gaylord; Atlanta; and Alpena. The railroad had a main line along the Lake Huron shore and branch lines connecting to logging camps and gravel quarries.  surveyed a former Indian path between Saginaw and Mackinac that would become known as the Mackinac Trail. This naming and surveying allowed specific platted lands to be sold at the Land Office. Northern Michigan is in the Designated Market Areas of "Traverse City-Cadillac" (116), "Alpena" (208), and some portions of "Flint-Saginaw-Bay City" (66). The Besser Museum for Northeast Michigan is a community museum serving Alpena County and surrounding counties in the U.S. state of Michigan. The ferry serviced the cities of Manitowoc, Wisconsin, Menominee, Michigan, and Manistique, Michigan. Meanwhile, in 1804, Mackinac Island was the center of the American fur trade. In 1728, fur trader Augustin Langlade obtained a fur trading license at Michilimackinac.  North of the line the historic presettlement forests were beech and sugar maple, mixed with hemlock, white pine, and yellow birch which only grew on moist soils further south.  After the Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw Railroad reached Grayling in the late 1870s, it began to advertise hunting and fishing trips in Crawford County, home of the arctic grayling. Insect populations are similar to those found elsewhere in the midwestern United States. Despite the presence of fur trade, US military and Indian offices, and various tradesmen, the settled population of Michilimackinac (defined as all the settlements from Saginaw to Green Bay) was between 800 and 1000 for the time period between 1820 and 1840. Morton Salt operates one of the largest salt plants in the world in Manistee. Missions to Native Americans included Rev.
 While the coastal areas were travelled, practically nothing was known about the interior parts of Northern Michigan. Sailing, kayaking, canoeing, birding, bicycling, horse back riding, motorcycling, and 'off roading' are important avocations. After the Chief Wawatam stopped running in 1984, rail lines serving the Straits of Mackinac were soon abandoned. Mackinac Island continued to be a locus of trade for the American Fur Company and was the site where Army doctor William Beaumont became Post surgeon in 1820 and began conducting his famous digestion experiments on 19-year-old Alexis St. Martin between 1822 and 1833. The economy of Northern Michigan is limited by its lower population, few industries and reduced agriculture compared to lower Michigan. A large portion of the area is the so-called Grayling outwash plain, which consists of broad outwash plain including sandy ice-disintegration ridges; jack pine barrens, some white pine-red pine forest, and northern hardwood forest.
Diverse industries developed, such as iron works, tanneries, mills, cement plants, and agricultural enterprises. He and his half-Ottawa son Charles Michel de Langlade (born at the fort in 1729) would later strongly influence the Northern Michigan fur trade as well as French relations with Great Lakes tribes during the 1712 to 1733 Fox Wars and the 17541763 French and Indian War. Peter Dougherty and Rev. Community colleges include North Central Michigan College (NCMC, pronounced "nuck-muck" by locals), Alpena Community College, Huron Shores Campus-Alpena Community College, Kirtland Community College, West Shore Community College, and Northwestern Michigan College (NMC) including the Great Lakes Maritime Academy, the only U.S. maritime academy on freshwater. By 1984 much of the railroad was abandoned and operations were handed over to the Tuscola and Saginaw Bay Railway. Commercial fishing is a minor activity. The British built the more substantial Fort Mackinac at the site in 1780..  The two regions are connected by the 5-mile-long Mackinac Bridge. , According to Menominee tradition, this tribe's original homeland was farther north, near present-day Sault Ste. In the decades that followed, French explorers and missionaries continued to explore the "Upper Country" of New France that included the Upper Great Lakes. Several ferries still operate in the region. Daily editions of the Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News are also available throughout the area with the Bay City Times and Saginaw News available in the east and The Grand Rapids Press available in the west. As passenger railroad usage ended in the 1960s (due in part to increased automobile travel), aggressive promotion of Northern Michigan by local chambers of commerce led to many of the festivals and attractions that bring visitors north even today. The effect of rail connections was ultimately transformative; timber and other goods could be produced in the north and shipped to urban markets to the south. , By the 1840s, the American Fur Company was in steep decline as silk hats replaced beaver hats in European fashion. In 1835, Lieutenant Benjamin Poole of the 3rd U.S. The most populated municipality as a whole in the region is Garfield Township, with over 16 thousand. The region has a significant seasonal population much like other regions that depend on tourism as their main industry.  The establishment of a French garrison at St. Ignace in 1679 disrupted relations between the French and the local population, as the soldiers were less educated and amiable than the missionaries.  These are six of 29 places in the U.S.A. where such signs or monuments are known to exist.  The French established the North American fur trade with Indian tribes. There have been discussions of reviving passenger service along this line. While the Beaver Wars raged on, Marquette evangelized the Indians, planted a large cross in Cross Village and established a mission in L'Arbre Croche ("Crooked Tree"). They captured the island soon after the outbreak of war between Britain and the United States. , All of the northern Lower Peninsula north of a line from Manistee County on the west to Iosco County on the east (the second orange tier up on the map) is considered to be part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gaylord.. See the "Notable people" sections in the various settlement articles. For the northernmost peninsula of Michigan, see, Lower Peninsula of Michigan in the United States. Scattered nestings were reported into the 1880s, but the birds were now weary, and commonly abandoned their nests if persecuted.. For example, when traveling to the Upper Peninsula, it is well to realize that it is roughly 300 miles (480km) from Detroit to the Mackinac Bridge, but it is another 300 miles (480km) from St. Ignace to Ironwood. , The resort era flourished in lakeside areas of Northern Michigan even as the fishing and lumbering industries experienced slow decline. The massive flocks of passenger pigeons stopped darkening the skies of Northern Michigan, especially after the last large scale nestings and subsequent slaughters of millions of birds in 1874 and 1878. Common mammals in Northern Michigan include white-tailed deer, fox, raccoons, porcupines, and rabbits. He was also responsible for the region around Green Bay in present-day Wisconsin. A fishing fiesta", Chestnut Harvest Festival www.cadillacmichigan.com, "Annual Cedar Polka Fest - Cedar, Michigan", "Welcome to CYC Race to Mackinac - Race to Mackinac", "Best Place to Buy Watches for Firemen - Beware Of The Quality Of Luxury Watches In The Online Medium", "Future uncertain for Brown Trout Festival", "Brown Trout Festival Is Downsizing For 2016", "Manistee County Chamber of Commerce website", "National Morel Mushroom Festival - Official site for the Mushroom Festival held each May in Boyne City, Michigan", "National Trout Festival - Festival, Entertainment", "23nd Annual North American Snow Festival", "Festival on the Bay - Petoskey Michigan - August", "44th Annual Boyne Falls Polish Festival Michigan - August 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 2018", "Scottville Harvest Festival, every September in Scottville, MI", "Traverse Bay Farms Free Shipping on Tart Cherry Juice, Cherry Capsules", "Charlevoix Venetian Festival Building community by bringing people together", "Record number of teams will compete in 120-mile AuSable River Canoe Marathon", "AuSable River International Canoe Marathon July 3031 is one of world's toughest races", "SDC 2004: Kalkaska Winterfest Sled Dog Race", "400 years ago, Champlain's first European contact with First Nations in Georgian Bay met sound society", "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: St. Ignace Mission", "Michilimackinac 300 - Mackinac State Historic Parks", "BIA (RG75) Inventory, Washington, D.C., entries 1-74", "War of 1812 Mackinac State Historic Parks", "Man With Hole in Stomach Revolutionized Medicine", "The Gruesome Medical Breakthrough of Dr. William Beaumont on Mackinac Island - MyNorth.com", "The Beaver and Other Pelts / Masson Manuscripts / In Pursuit of Adventure: The Fur Trade in Canada and the North West Company", "Straits of Mackinac's 'Lost Era' Recounted in Planisek's New 'Frontier Entrepreneur' Book", "Act of Incorporation for the City of Chicago, 1837", "History and Development of Great Lakes Water Craft", "A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF MICHIGAN: 1837 to 1872", "The Missionary as Acculturation Agent: Peter Dougherty and the Indians of Grand Traverse", "Old Historical City, County and State Maps of Michigan", "Village of Wolverine Village of Wolverine History", "GEO 333 Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region", "Lumberman Stanchfield left Ludington in 1883", "A Biological Examination of Lake Michigan in the Traverse Bay Region", "Michigan Central Railroad, Wolverine Depot", "WAITING FOR THE MORNING TRAIN: An American Boyhood by Bruce Catton Kirkus Reviews", "The Federal Bureau of Recreation conducted a survey of Michigan's coastline for possible State Parks in 1956, and designated Lighthouse Point as part of its proposed "Poe Reef State Park Site."